Just as there are principles for developing an organizational structure, there are principles for operating one as well.
Principle of following the chain of command
The chain of command refers to the line organization. It would work up to the top and down to the bottom of the organization. Links in the chain, representing levels of organization, should not be bypassed in communications. Pastors have a hard time because they are the chief executive officer, like a company president, and should not be directly available to the lower levels of the organization. However, he is also the pastor, and anyone should have access to him in pastoral matters; but in areas of management he had better send matters back down the line to a person’s supervisor.
There should be clear channels of communication and these should be followed. This chain of command, or channel of communication, should provide for sending messages, and also for receiving feedback.
Principle of increasing management responsibility
As a church grows, the pastor has to spend more time in management and less in ministry. This calls for a real adjustment on the part of church leaders. They must do less of the work of the ministry directly, and delegate more of it to others. The larger the organization and the higher the person is in an organization, the more management work is required of the leader. The only way one can serve many is through management, however, the more a person is involved in management, then the less time he has to minister. Pastors tend to choose ministry over management, and the neglect of management leads to the detriment of the whole organization.
Principle of decentralization
An organization that is decentralized gives much more autonomy to each department than a centralized organization. Complete centralization is the concentration of all decision making at the top. Complete decentralization is the delegation of all decision making to the lowest level. Neither will work. The leader must find the magic spot of balance. Hard times will increase centralization.
Principle of management emphasis
When a manager is called upon to divide his time between two types of work, he will tend to show preferential emphasis in his decisions and choices. This preference can cause problems.
Principle of approval of next level
Promotions, demotions, and terminations, and other major decisions should always be approved by the executive immediately superior to the one directly responsible. This is a good control. Many times special forms are used which require the signature of the manager at the next level to show his approval.
Principle of complete accountability
Every level in the structure needs an officer willing to put a sign on his desk saying, “The buck stops here.” Every section must assume complete responsibility and be held completely accountable for their work. Only poor supervisors blame their failure on some other section.
Leaders are always accountable not only for their actions but also for the actions or lack of actions, of their subordinates. Regular reports keep leaders informed of what others are doing, and these reports should be complete, specific, and clearly related to the church’s mission statement.
Principle of complete job assignment
A worker deserves to know what work is going to be expected, and that should be understood before hiring takes place. A job description is the best way to accomplish this. Pity the poor worker who doesn’t know what is expected and has a supervisor who keeps on adding more and more and more. Sunday School workers are often enlisted without having any idea of the training expected, the meetings one is to attend, or the visitation requirements for the job. Sunday School teachers are enlisted and they wrongly assume their only job is to teach the students who appear on Sunday morning.
Principle of commensurate authority
When a person is given responsibility, he should be given a commensurate amount of authority. The worker, and those who work under him, should know the exact limits of his authority. Some pastors seem to have a hard time releasing the authority for a position, although they do hold a person responsible for getting it done. Usually one is impossible without the other one.
Principle of correction
All corrections or criticism should be made in private. Under no circumstances should a subordinate be criticized in the presence of those of equal or lower rank.
Principle of exception
Decisions should be made at the lowest level possible according to the policies that have been established. Exceptions to the policies should be passed up the organization, but never routine decisions. Managers may establish reporting procedures that will call their attention to exceptions, while all “normal” or routine matters are handled by subordinates. Managers should concentrate their efforts on things that are exceptionally good or exceptionally bad, and not worry about things going as expected.